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Cold-forming a sheet of steel into a cylindrical shape is the process that is used to manufacture electric resistance welded pipe (ERW pipe). As a result of passing electric current between the two edged of the steel, the heat builds up to a point where the edges are forced together to form a bond between them without the need to use filler material to make the bond stronger.
It was originally the case that this manufacturing process used a low frequency AC current to heat the edges.
There was a low frequency process that was used from the 1920’s to 1970’s. As of 1970, the low frequency ERW process has been replaced by a high pipework fabrication pipe frequency ERW process that produces a higher quality of weld than the low frequency ERW process.
In the past few years, the welds used in low frequency ERW pipes have been found to be susceptible to selective seam corrosion, hook cracks, and inadequate bonding of the seams, so low frequency ERW pipes are no longer made using this method. Pipes are still manufactured using the high frequency process in order to be used in the construction of new pipelines today.
- Passage of current
- Sizing and cutting
It is important to understand that there are a number of materials used in construction, and pipes are among the most common materials used. It is essential for them to be robust enough so they can endure a variety of environmental conditions that may result in significant fluctuations in temperature or pressure. For this reason, there are several production techniques available to produce pipes of industrial quality. An example of one of these methods is ERW steel pipes, which are manufactured with a welding process.
Aside from the many qualities of steel, ERW pipes offer exceptional strength and durability for fluid transmission and other structural applications, as well as delivering numerous advantages.
What is ERW?
The abbreviation ERW stands for Electric Resistance Welding, and it is used to describe a particular process in the manufacture of pipes and pipes parts. how are pipes made this particular method of welding involves joining two uncoiled rolls of steel sheets together without the use of welding filler wire or metal. In this method, the sheets are welded together with an electrical current and continuous force application. As opposed to other types of pipe fabrication, ERW pipe fabrication begins with a billet that is rolled before being refined with a piercer point.
At room temperature, cold-forming is a process of forging or working metal specimens – in this case steel – at room temperature. As a result, the metal pipe fabrication process of forging takes place below the recrystallization temperature of the steel, which ensures that the material is free of impurities. By doing this, the grain structure of the steel changes to become finer and less coarse, resulting in a hardened material that produces very little waste when it is machined.
Cold-rolling or molding is one of the most important steps in the manufacturing of ERW pipes, which involves forming a cylindrical shape from a sheet of steel that has been cold-rolled or molded.
It is also significantly faster and more suitable for high-speed manufacturing to use cold-forming since no additional heat processing is required to be performed. A cold-formed steel specimen is significantly stronger than any steel specimens that have been welded as a result of permanent hardening during the cold-forming process.
Passage of current
ERW pipe make formation is a continuous process that occurs on equipment that is constantly moving. In spite of this, it is still possible to identify and describe the many stages that constitute it. There is a current flowing between the resulting edges of a cylindrical steel after the cold-forming process has taken place. As a result of the induction coil and the smooth pressure roll, the cylindrical shape is gradually maintained as they are gradually brought together with the current steel pipe process.
Using an induction coil as a heating method results in the material being heated without contacting any body part. This type of heater is usually placed around the steel specimen that is being welded. A recirculation impeder is also added to the ERW machining process to regulate how much electrical current is distributed throughout the materials during the machining process. This implies that the energy is transferred to the welding of the steel joints in the process.
ERW fabrication also involves the step of forming. In other words, the steel coils passing through the ERW-making machine are formed into cylindrical sheets that are then heated with electrical current so that the sheets can be welded together. I am going to demonstrate this by showing you the sheets initially appear to be U-shaped, with a number of open welded seams, or edges, as they are usually called.
It is the machine’s responsibility to ensure that the U-shaped steel that is produced remains in its formation throughout the whole process, so that faults and imperfections in the production process are avoided. Steel sheets are initially rolled, then gage formed, which results in a uniformly shaped cross section after they are rolled.
It is important to take the time to look at both seamless and non-seamless pipes in order to see where the production processes begin to change when they are compared to pipes that are ERW.
A seamless pipe may look exactly like a ERW pipe from a distance, but ERW pipes use a non-contact electrical current that is not visible to the naked eye. Seamless pipes, on the other hand, may require a welding filler, which is not found in the ERW welding process, because they are not welded. Seamed pipes, however, may require a continuous smooth surface with no apparent edges or joints.
A pipe manufacturing will ensure that the welded pipes that they produce can be used in a variety of applications, for example, HVAC systems, or petrochemical plants. It has been observed in seamless pipe manufacturing that, despite strict quality control, there may sometimes be instances of uneven welding pressure. In addition, some issues could arise related to pipe leaks or damage, although these are significantly less likely to occur with ERW pipes because their pressures and strength distributions are consistent.
Sizing and Cutting
In addition to welding the U-shaped joints together, the ERW pipe can now be subjected to post-processing procedures in order to make it more resistant to rust and for better durability.
There are varying sizes and lengths of ERW pipes based on the purpose for which they are being used. With this in mind, ERW pipes may be cut into a broad range of pipe sizes and lengths based on their thickness, diameter, and length. Further, it can be used with an end-facing machine to shape and shape the pipe ends in a manner that will allow it to accept different fittings.